Welcome to the Prison Talk Online Community! Take a Minute and Sign Up Today!






Go Back   Prison Talk > RESOURCE CENTER > Native American Prisoner Discussions
Register Entertainment FAQ Calendar Mark Forums Read

Native American Prisoner Discussions Dedicated to Native American prisoners and their loved ones.

Reply
 
Thread Tools Display Modes
  #26  
Old 07-09-2005, 03:20 AM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default Meth dealer gets life sentence

July 8, 2005

Last modified July 8, 2005 - 12:39 am
Meth dealer gets life sentence

Associated Press

CHEYENNE - A man convicted of selling methamphetamine in Fremont County and on Indian reservations in Wyoming, South Dakota and Nebraska was sentenced to life in prison.

Judge Alan B. Johnson handed down the sentence Wednesday to Jesus Martin Sagaste-Cruz, who had been convicted of distribution of methamphetamine and conspiracy. The judge called it "a sad commentary" that demand for methamphetamine allowed for Sagaste-Cruz to run a profitable business.

"And that's what this was - a business, pure and simple, to distribute large quantities of methamphetamine," Johnson said.

Authorities said Sagaste-Cruz sold more than 99 pounds of meth on the Wind River Indian Reservation and in neighboring Fremont County, and sold additional quantities on the Rosebud, Pine Ridge and Yankton reservations in South Dakota and the Santee Reservation in Nebraska.

Jeffrey D. Sweetin, special agent in charge of the Drug Enforcement Administration's Rocky Mountain Region, said Sagaste-Cruz sought to exploit jurisdictional loopholes on Indian reservations.

"Sagaste-Cruz is a predator who targeted Native Americans in order to make a profit," Sweetin said. "Today, the United States has sent a strong message to those who would attempt to follow in his footsteps - you will be caught, prosecuted and sentenced to the fullest extent of the law no matter where you deal your poison."



Copyright © 2005 Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.
__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi

Last edited by Wingy; 07-09-2005 at 03:21 AM..
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to Wingy For This Useful Post:
CakesThe Baker (10-06-2008)
Sponsored Links
  #27  
Old 07-09-2005, 03:27 AM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default Deal sets rules for Native inmates

Deal sets rules for Native inmatesBy KEVIN O'HANLON/The Associated Press State prison officials have agreed to new rules to accommodate the religious and cultural needs of Native inmates in order to settle a federal court action. The settlement agreement, obtained Thursday by The Associated Press, arose from a complaint filed by inmate Richard T. Walker, a Native sentenced in Thurston County to a life term in 1966 for second-degree murder. His complaint was filed in U.S. District Court in Lincoln on behalf of the prison system's approximately 200 Native inmates. Among Walker's allegations was a claim that prison officials made so many demands for qualifications on a medicine man that he stopped coming to the prison to conduct religious and cultural affairs services for the state's Native inmates. Walker also alleged that prison officials required the medicine man to be able to "acclimate" to the religious needs of other inmates, including Christians and Muslims. The settlement agreement would replace a 1974 consent decree signed by U.S. District Judge Warren Urbom requiring prison officials to allow Native inmates to conduct religious ceremonies and have access to medicine men and ceremonial tobacco. Urbom must approve the settlement before it can take effect. The consent decree, many argued, was diluted by the 1996 Prison Litigation Reform Act, which was meant to reduce the number of inmate lawsuits. Courts often have responded to inmate lawsuits over prison conditions by ordering state officials to relieve those that violate some constitutional right. Congress enacted the 1996 law out of its concern that federal courts were intruding too far into state prison management. The law limits a judge's power to order changes in conditions of confinement "no further than necessary to correct the violation of the federal right of a particular plaintiff or plaintiffs." Under the law, remedies must be the "least intrusive means necessary" to correct any violation. "The consent decree … lost a lot of its usefulness after the enactment of the" 1996 law, said Bassel El-Kasaby, one of the lawyers representing the inmates. "We thought it was in the interests of the inmates to create this new framework." In the proposed settlement, prison officials agreed to allow Native inmates to have two powwows a year and give them time for religious education and worship ceremonies. The inmates also can use traditional, ceremonial foods such as fry bread, corn and "berry dish" in their ceremonies. The inmates agreed to not use tobacco — which is banned in the prison system — in their ceremonies. But prison officials will let them use chinshasha, which is made from the bark of red willow trees, as a substitute. Prison officials also agreed to allow the reinstatement of the Native American Club and allow access to medicine men and other spiritual leaders. Assistant Attorney General Jennifer Tomka, who helped reach the settlement, was not in her office because of Veterans Day and could not be reached to comment.
But she had argued earlier that prison officials had gone out of their way to accommodate Native inmates. She said, for example, that inmates were allowed to proceed with their religious ceremonies even when a medicine man failed to show up to lead a ceremony.
__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to Wingy For This Useful Post:
CakesThe Baker (10-06-2008)
  #28  
Old 07-11-2005, 11:56 AM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default Wampanoag Tribe Drops Appeal in Federal Court; State High Ruling Prevails

Wampanoag Tribe Drops Appeal in Federal Court; State High Ruling Prevails

By James Kinsella
Gazette Senior Writer

The Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah) announced this week that it will not appeal the landmark sovereignty case to the United State Supreme Court.

The decision means that the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (SJC) decision from late last year will be allowed to stand, and the case will now return to the superior court for a remedy.

The state's highest court ruled that the tribe must abide by state and town zoning rules, reversing the lower court decision that found the Wampanoags cannot be sued because of sovereign immunity - and preserving the integrity of a historic 1983 Indian land claims settlement agreement that was the crux of the case.

The state's highest court found that the Wampanoags waived sovereign immunity when they signed the settlement agreement, which led to federal recognition for the tribe in 1987.

The Wampanoags are the only federally recognized tribe in the commonwealth.

"We now have a definitive resolution of the relationship between the tribe and the town in relation to land use," said James Quarles 3rd, who represented the Aquinnah/Gay Head Community Association, a group of taxpayers and one of the plaintiffs in the case.

"At least as to the issues decided, the Supreme Judicial Court has spoken and that is now the final word," Mr. Quarles added.

"This is important to the town and important to the Island," said Aquinnah town counsel Ronald H. Rappaport yesterday. "It means the same rules apply to the tribe as the town. The town itself has to abide by zoning. What are the rules? That's important," Mr. Rappaport said, adding:

"I am pleased for both the town and the tribe that this matter is not going to push farther."

Tribal chairman Donald Widdiss said yesterday that the council decided that government-to-government discussions with the town were a more fruitful avenue than continuing to fight the issue in court. Mr. Widdiss said informal discussions with town officials revealed that they would welcome the conversations.

"Don stressed he wants to work with the town and we want to work with the tribe, within the framework of the court decision. Hopefully, we can mend any fences that have been broken," said Aquinnah selectman and board chairman James Newman yesterday.

Mr. Widdiss was elected tribal chairman last November, defeating longtime chairman Beverly Wright.

The court dispute dates back to March of 2001, when the tribe built a small shed and a pier at its shellfish hatchery without obtaining a building permit. The hatchery sits on the tribally owned Cook Lands fronting Menemsha Pond. The town took the tribe to court over the infraction, and in June of 2003 the Hon. Richard F. Connon, an associate justice of the superior court, found that the Wampanoags cannot be sued because of sovereign immunity.

The SJC overturned the ruling.

"We conclude that, with respect to its land use on the Cook Lands, the only land in dispute in this case, the tribe waived its sovereign immunity, thus subjecting the tribe and the hatchery to the zoning enforcement action," wrote Justice John M. Greaney in the Dec. 2004 decision.

The tribe announced its decision to not pursue a federal appeal in a press release issued on Wednesday afternoon.

"The tribal council of the Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah) has decided by unanimous consent not to file a Petition for Certiorari to the U.S. Supreme Court . . . . We will instead ask the Aquinnah selectmen to resume negotiations suspended when the original action was filed. Our goal is to provide mutually acceptable solutions to land use issues while respecting the need to set the tone for future cooperation between the tribe and town in matters of mutual benefit," the press release said. It also said:

"This decision recognizes that matters of law still remain unresolved."

The town was the original plaintiff in the case, but when the case moved to the state supreme court, the town decided not to pursue the appeal, leaving it to the taxpayer group and the Benton Family Trust, an abutters group, to seek judicial guidance from the state's highest court.

Later Massachusetts Attorney General Thomas Reilly intervened in the case.

"We stepped in [on] this case for a reason. There is more going on here than just a shed in Aquinnah. We believe it is important that the tribe live up to its agreement and comply with state law in current and future tribal projects," Mr. Reilly said in a statement at the time.

Friend of the court briefs were also filed by the Martha's Vineyard Commission and the towns of West Tisbury and Chilmark.

The case now returns to Dukes County superior court, and Mr. Rappaport said the town will again become an active party. "We are going to re-enter the case," he said.

But Mr. Newman said he would want to learn the potential remedy before deciding with his fellow selectmen whether to pursue it.

The Supreme Judicial Court decision specifically addressed with whether town and state zoning laws were applicable on the Cook Lands, which the tribe had received in the 1983 land claims settlement agreement. The agreement was signed by the town and the tribe and also ratified by the state legislature and an act of Congress.

A possible question remains whether the tribe must abide by zoning laws on other land.

Mr. Quarles and Mr. Rappaport said the answer is clear.

"What's applicable on the Cook Lands is applicable on any land, anywhere," Mr. Quarles said.

Mr. Rappaport agreed. "The case has implications for other lands," he said.

In the SJC decision Justice Greaney wrote: "Because we have concluded that the tribe waived its sovereign immunity as to land use on the Cook Lands, we need not discuss in detail the additional argument . . . [but] the tribe knowingly bargained for, and fully understood, its obligations under the settlement agreement to submit to local zoning enforcement, and judicial action, where necessary."

Mr. Widdiss said yesterday that the court battle between the tribe and the town "was being driven by ego." The tribe, he said, wanted to work out the matter outside of the court process.

Douglas Luckerman, the Lexington attorney who represented the tribe in the case, said the council was handling all tribal comment on the case.

Mr. Widdiss said the tribe plans to continue to retain Mr. Luckerman, who represents the tribe on environmental issues.

Yesterday, Mr. Quarles said, "It's now time for this issue to get resolved somewhere other than a courtroom, for the parties to talk directly to each other rather in front of a judge."




Originally published in The Vineyard Gazette
__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to Wingy For This Useful Post:
CakesThe Baker (10-06-2008)
  #29  
Old 07-11-2005, 11:59 AM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default Wampanoag sues city for $10M

Wampanoag sues city for $10M
Gregg M. Miliote, Herald News Staff Reporter
07/08/2005

http://www.heraldnews.com/images/email_this_article.gifEmail to a friend http://www.heraldnews.com/images/voice_opinion.gifVoice your opinion http://www.heraldnews.com/images/printversion.gifPrinter-friendly

FALL RIVER -- After being defeated in court on a number of occasions, an American Indian attorney is again suing the city for violating his civil rights and his tribe’s freedom to assemble.


Albert H. Corliss, a Wampanoag Indian, is seeking $10 million in damages.

Corliss has been tied to a slew of other lawsuits filed against the city during the past decade, most of which deal with ownership of the Watuppa Reservation.

In his most recent court filing, Corliss claims the city has systematically attempted to stop American Indian tribes from attempting to preserve a sliver of their former nation.

As evidence, Corliss alleges the "illegal" towing of his truck from the Watuppa Reservation four years ago "sent a chilling message to the Indians that the entire reservation is under the jurisdiction and control of the City of Fall River."

"This towing and confiscation is a continuum of a policy, custom and practice employed by the city since 1907," Corliss wrote to the court. "I desire a recovery of my goods and stoppage of the institutionalized behavior on behalf of the city which effectively deprives the Indian of the peaceful enjoyment of his deeded reservation."

The seizure of his vehicle came on the heels of a decision by a group of local American Indians to complete a constitution and hold governmental meetings on the reservation.

Corliss, who was the Nemasket and Troy Indian Council chairman, says less than a month after the city was notified of the tribe and its intentions, his vehicle was towed from sovereign land.

"What right did they have to go onto the reservation and just take property?" Corliss asked. "None!"

But City Corporation Counsel Thomas McGuire said he is having trouble understanding how the towing of a vehicle violated Corliss’ freedom to assemble or why he is seeking $10 million.

"That 1988 Nissan must have been kept in great shape," McGuire joked. "But seriously, this case is just like the one he filed last year."

That case was dismissed for lack of federal jurisdiction by the same U.S. District Court judge assigned to the current case.

Corliss, though, said he will point to a number of other instances of "city-led" intimidation of local American Indians as the civil case proceeds.

"There are other events I will make the court aware of at the proper time, but that’s part of the strategy of the case and I can’t really comment on that right now," Corliss said.

Although his lawsuit alleges a violation of his civil rights, Corliss told The Herald News Thursday the underlying issue to be resolved in this case is to receive a judicial ruling on who actually owns the former reservation property.

Corliss claims the city violated a 210-year-old federal law when it took more than half of the 196-acre Fall River Indian Reservation by eminent domain in 1907.

While the roots of many of Corliss’ arguments can be traced back to 1659, when the Pocassets conveyed a large tract of land to 26 colonists, he said the issue came to a head in 1907.

"The city, for a century now, has continuously claimed we are a charity and a ward of the city," Corliss said. "Yet they’re not providing us with anything except non-taxation, something that every Indian reservation already enjoys."

The city took over most of the former reservation in 1907 under a special act by the Legislature.

"It’s not as if the city forcefully took this land without fair compensation," McGuire said. "The city was in its first stages of buying up acres and acres of land around the North Watuppa Pond to protect the purity of the city’s drinking water."

But Corliss asserts the taking of American Indian land couldn’t "be more un-American."

Corliss has been at the forefront of the dispute over the former reservation land for at least the past seven years.

He has filed four separate federal court lawsuits and at least one other with the Massachusetts Land Court.

Although he was defeated in each case, Corliss says this time he "will have the upper hand."

"This is a legacy that dates back all the way to the King Philip’s War. We fought with the colonists against the king, and the way we have been treated ever since is a terrible blemish on us," Corliss said. "I’m strongly confident in this case. I learned a valuable lesson from the English: You can lose a lot of battles, but still win the war."

McGuire, though, sees things very differently.

"My confidence level in winning this case is fairly high. There is no jurisdiction for this case to be in federal court," McGuire asserted. "Plus, the statute of limitations under the federal Civil Rights Act is only three tears. This alleged incident occurred in 2001."

He said the city has legitimate cause to defend the land it acquired in 1907.

"The land the city took over is kept as open space for watershed protection of the North Watuppa," McGuire explained. "This is crucial to every resident of Fall River. We have to protect the water supply."

Corliss said if he is successful in this lawsuit, all money awarded will become "Indian money."

"I’m doing this for the good of all Indian tribes," Corliss said.

The 2000 U.S. Census states that 175 Native Americans live in Fall River and 1,283 reside in Bristol County.
__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to Wingy For This Useful Post:
CakesThe Baker (10-06-2008)
  #30  
Old 07-13-2005, 09:27 PM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default Family plans to follow Peltier

http://img.ljworld.com/ljworld/art/ljw_logo_print.gif

Family plans to follow Peltier

Wednesday, July 13, 2005

Marquetta Shields looks forward to the day her dad, Leonard Peltier, can join her in the park for a picnic with his grandchildren.

“I always thought that hopefully by the time I had children, my dad would be out of prison,” Shields said.

Shields was just 2 years old when Peltier, an American Indian Movement activist, was convicted in the 1975 shooting death of two FBI agents on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota.

Shields moved her family from South Dakota to Lawrence to be near Peltier during his imprisonment at the U.S. Penitentiary at Leavenworth. Now she’s making plans to move again.

After spending 17 years at Leavenworth, Peltier was transferred on June 30 to a maximum security federal prison in Terre Haute, Ind.

A spokeswoman for the Federal Bureau of Prisons said the move was necessary due to a restructuring at the Leavenworth prison.

“Leavenworth is being reclassified as a medium-security institution and will no longer house high-security inmates,” said Traci Billingsley.

Peltier’s relatives said they weren’t notified prior to, or even after, the move.

‘He’s not here?’

It was Peltier’s grandson, 20-year-old Cyrus Peltier, who first learned of the transfer, after making the trip from Lawrence to Leavenworth on July 3 to visit his grandfather.

“My eyes got big, my mouth dropped, and I said, ‘Really, he’s not here?’” Cyrus Peltier said.

He’s been visiting his grandfather at Leavenworth every Sunday for as long as he can remember.

“He’s kind of like a father to me,” Cyrus Peltier said. “We would just talk about cars, fishing, eating good food and I liked to ask him a lot of questions about how it was for him in the past.”

Now Cyrus Peltier will have to travel nearly 500 miles to see his grandfather.

“It’s going to be tough — it’s going to be tough for him and it’s going to be tough for me,” Cyrus Peltier said. “But I do plan on flying back and forth whenever I get a chance to.”

The move to Terre Haute won’t stop Leonard Peltier’s supporters from fighting for his release from prison. The Leonard Peltier Defense Committee, which was headquartered in Lawrence, packed up and moved last week.

“It took us two days,” Cyrus Peltier said. “We packed up the defense committee office in a U-Haul, and it’s out in Indiana, about two minutes away from the Terre Haute prison.”

2008 hearing

Supporters have been fighting for more than a quarter of a century for Peltier’s release, claiming the government framed him by fabricating and withholding evidence. Investigators have denied those claims, and his conviction has remained in effect over the decades.

Since Peltier was transferred, his daughter has not been able to speak to him because he is being housed in solitary confinement. She plans to move to Indiana within the year.

“I don’t want him to feel like he’s going to be there alone,” Shields said. “It’s just basically so my kids will know him and they can see him as much as possible.”

Peltier — who received back-to-back life sentences in his case — next gets a parole hearing in 2008. Until then, his relatives hold out hope for a resolution to the controversial case.

“I don’t want to bring my dad home in a pine box,” Shields said. “I’ll go to my grave knowing that he was innocent.”
__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to Wingy For This Useful Post:
CakesThe Baker (10-06-2008)
  #31  
Old 07-14-2005, 07:37 PM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default Alaskan Gets 7 Years for Walrus Killings

Alaskan Gets 7 Years for Walrus Killings
-
Wednesday, July 13, 2005






(07-13) 05:35 PDT Anchorage, Alaska (AP) --

An Alaska Native was sentenced to a harsh seven years in federal prison for killing six walruses, removing the heads to sell the ivory and sinking the carcasses.



Herman A. Oyagak was on probation for felony assault when he participated in what prosecutors declared a wasteful killing of walruses in 2003. That, plus his criminal history, led to the harsh sentence, Assistant U.S. Attorney James Goeke said Tuesday.



Under federal law, Alaska Natives are allowed to hunt walruses for subsistence but they must use a substantial portion of the animal. In this case, the walruses were being killed for the ivory and bodies were abandoned, Goeke said.



A co-defendant in the case, Samuel Akpik, also of Barrow, previously was sentenced to two months in federal prison, two months of home confinement and a $500 fine.



Frequently, such illegal items end up at Anchorage gift shops, said Steve Oberholtzer, assistant special agent in charge of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in Alaska. A bull walrus head mount — just the tusks and nose plate mounted on a piece of wood — can sell for $3,000 or more, he said.



Oberholtzer said the arrests in the walrus killings came from information supplied by outraged villagers.


URL: http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cg...a053542D87.DTL
__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to Wingy For This Useful Post:
CakesThe Baker (10-06-2008)
  #32  
Old 07-14-2005, 07:43 PM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default A new book telling the story of an Inuit family who became exhibits in a European zoo

Inuit family's plight to appear in print Last updated Jul 12 2005 08:43 AM MDT
CBC NewsA new book telling the story of an Inuit family who became exhibits in a European zoo will be published soon, due to the efforts of a German academic to translate the tragic tale.

The book, The Diary of Abraham Ulrikab, describes the plight of eight Inuit from Labrador whom a ship captain brought to Germany in the 1800s. They became attractions in a travelling zoo for Europeans interested in the so-called Eskimo culture.

Within four months, all eight had died of smallpox, a disease for which they had no immunity.

Their story is preserved in one Inuk's diary. The original Inuktitut version was lost, but a German copy survived.

Now an expert in Canadian studies at the University of Greifswald in Germany, Hartmut Lutz, has translated the diary to English with the help of his students.

"I don't know Inuktitut," said Lutz. "All we could do was translate it as closely [as possible] to the original and bring it out so people in Labrador, who have no access to German, know what happened to Abraham over 100 years ago."

The Diary of Abraham Ulrikab is expected to be published by the University of Ottawa Press in the fall.
__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to Wingy For This Useful Post:
CakesThe Baker (10-06-2008)
  #33  
Old 07-14-2005, 07:49 PM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default Arguing Thomas Bowden's absurd assertion

Michael W. Naylor letter: No reason Indians should be grateful

Published Sunday, July 10, 2005

In his letter to the editor (Reject proposal to apologize to the Indians, July 2), Thomas Bowden makes the absurd assertion that the conquering Europeans gave American Indians the great gift of Western civilization for which they should be grateful. What he failed to mention is that this wonderful "gift" was wrapped in paper with genocidal print.

It was an expensive "gift" for which American Indians paid with their lives, lands, and culture. Decimated by smallpox, they were the victims of the earliest documented use of biological warfare when Indian combatants in the Pontiac Rebellion were given blankets from the smallpox hospital at Fort Pitt. The "gift" had its desired effect.

The "benign" U.S. policy towards American Indians included starving them onto reservations. In the late 1800s the government pursued a policy to exterminate the bison, the plains Indians' major source of sustenance. The plan was wildly successful. The population of bison, once estimated to be 70 million, was less than 1,000 by the 1890s and the last major Indian uprising at Wounded Knee was quelled.

This "gift" came at the expense of families whose children were kidnapped and placed in boarding schools for assimilation into white society. Children were forced to cut their hair (spiritually symbolic for many native cultures), prohibited from speaking their native tongue, and abused. Children who did not die in these boarding schools found themselves unwelcome in white society and a stranger to their own.

That Bowden fails to understand why Indians were not grateful for the "gift" of Western civilization makes me wonder if he thinks that African Americans should be grateful for slavery. After all, didn't the slave traders rescue their ancestors from living conditions as primitive as the American Indians' and give them the gift of Western civilization?



Michael W. Naylor

(Graduate of Fargo South & NDSU) Chicago





__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to Wingy For This Useful Post:
CakesThe Baker (10-06-2008)
  #34  
Old 07-17-2005, 04:42 PM
MiaBellaAngela's Avatar
MiaBellaAngela MiaBellaAngela is offline
Glad to be alive.
 

Join Date: Sep 2004
Location: ...
Posts: 6,713
Thanks: 4
Thanked 36 Times in 33 Posts
Default Through Indian Eyes

Through Indian Eyes
The Untold Story of Native American Peoples

by Reader's Digest

Hardcover.
__________________
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to MiaBellaAngela For This Useful Post:
CakesThe Baker (10-06-2008)
  #35  
Old 07-18-2005, 07:18 PM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default

I havent read the book and just looked at some glowing reviews... What i read first, though, did not make me very happy

" Beginning with the waves of Asian migrants to North America at the end of the last ice age,..."

thats scientist talk, and only a theory...scientists deciding who we are and where we came from...that theory has been discounted but some still refuse to give it up...

When i first read the reviews I thought i would purchase the book for my own library and one for my husband...i am reconsidering...
__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
  #36  
Old 07-18-2005, 07:19 PM
MiaBellaAngela's Avatar
MiaBellaAngela MiaBellaAngela is offline
Glad to be alive.
 

Join Date: Sep 2004
Location: ...
Posts: 6,713
Thanks: 4
Thanked 36 Times in 33 Posts
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by Wingy
I havent read the book and just looked at some glowing reviews... What i read first, though, did not make me very happy

" Beginning with the waves of Asian migrants to North America at the end of the last ice age,..."

thats scientist talk, and only a theory...scientists deciding who we are and where we came from...that theory has been discounted but some still refuse to give it up...

When i first read the reviews I thought i would purchase the book for my own library and one for my husband...i am reconsidering...
It has good photos. Maybe get it from the library first to check it out.
__________________
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to MiaBellaAngela For This Useful Post:
CakesThe Baker (10-06-2008)
  #37  
Old 07-18-2005, 07:41 PM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default

yeah, i read the pictures and maps, etc were amazing, so thats a great idea...I just hate to spend my $$$ on something about the First People that wasnt written by the First People...I did look at the accrditation page and didnt see any names i recognized (not that that really means anything. I am going to check it out Mia, thanks for the suggestion...
__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
  #38  
Old 07-19-2005, 07:56 AM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default Kennewick Man...2 recent articles

Wingy says...." 4 Tribes continue to fight for the release of the bones of this ancestor. for proper burial, including ceremony. Repatriation of the Ancestors and their property is law, and the government and scientists continue to flaunt their lawless acts in studying the bones of our ancestors."

Friday, July 15, 2005
Kennewick Man gives up secrets
But more questions arise after first study of ancient bones


By CAROL SMITH
SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTER


Kennewick Man yielded a few tantalizing clues to his past yesterday as the team of scientists studying him wrapped up the first phase of its investigation.

The skull of the skeleton found on the bank of the Columbia River nine years ago shares common characteristics with other "paleo-Indians" of North America, said David Hunt, physical anthropologist with the Smithsonian Institution, who pieced together the skull for the first time.

"You can tell when it fits exactly," he said of the ancient three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle. "I could just feel it."

But that finding alone raises more questions about various theories of how the Americas were populated, said Douglas Owsley, also a forensic anthropologist with the Smithsonian and leader of the scientific team.

"He's of a line we weren't expecting," he said. "What was a simple model is not right. He shows the complexity."

At this point, scientists aren't prepared to say more than that.

"He could be somebody locally born and raised, or he could be an immigrant himself," Owsley said.

Kennewick Man, who was found with a spearhead embedded in his hip, has been at the center of a mystery about his origins and a controversy over what to do with him since his discovery in 1996. Several Northwest tribes, including the Yakama, Umatilla, Nez Perce and Colville, claimed him as an ancestor and asked to rebury the bones under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.

A few months later, scientists sued to block the reburial and petitioned for the right to study the rare skeleton.





In 2002, a federal court ruled that the bones could be studied, a decision that was upheld two years later.

So far, the long-sought investigation has raised more questions than it's answered. Even Kennewick Man's age -- both biological and archaeological -- are up in the air. He was originally believed to have been in his mid-40s when he died about 9,300 years ago. Scientists are now hedging that.

The bones have been judged to be 8,400 radiocarbon years (which are not the same as calendar years), but with a range of 2,600, which Owsley said was unacceptably broad. Scientists plan to redate the bones to narrow the age.

And regarding his chronological age at the time of his death from undisclosed causes, Owsley was circumspect.

"We may be inclined to modify that," he said, but wouldn't elaborate.

There are a few things they know for sure, however. A sophisticated CT scan used to measure and reconstruct models of the bone fragments helped show which way the spearhead entered the man's hip bone.

But they're not telling -- yet.

The spearhead lodged in his hip appeared to be a healed injury, Owsley said, although there is still debate over whether it was an active site of infection.

"I do know when (the spear) hit he knew it," Owsley said. "It was sheared off at the tip, and you can see the base is broken where he grabbed it and twisted it off."

And the man likely had other misadventures.

Hugh Berryman, a consulting forensic anthropologist who works for crime labs in Tennessee, is an expert on bone fractures caused by everything from gunshots to gravity.

His job was to sort out which fractures in the skeleton came from the pressure of being buried in the earth and then eroding out of the bank of the river, and which happened during Kennewick Man's life.

There do appear to be some fractures that occurred when he was alive, Berryman said.

The team, which has spent nearly every waking hour at the Burke Museum in Seattle looking at, analyzing and talking about the bones for the past two weeks, was elated over the details that were emerging.

Dozens of variables, from the pattern of algae deposits to fine water abrasion, rodent nibbling and sediment deposits, were duly noted and factored into the story of the bones.

"We have had our days where we spent the whole day on a single bone," Owsley said.

"Our primary goal was to have a very exact inventory of the bones," he said. The decomposing skeleton, broken into nearly 400 pieces, had many fragments that hadn't yet been described and cataloged.

All the data from the first phase of the inquiry will be compiled into a report this fall and passed along to a second team of scientists who will begin their examination of the bones early next year.

The second phase will try to determine finer details such as whether he was intentionally buried or died accidentally and was covered in silt where he fell.

A third phase of study will try to determine characteristics such as "robusticity," physical size and where and how the Kennewick Man was "muscled up," Owsley said. That information could lead to clues about his lifestyle and activities.

"The bone records its own history," Berryman said. "This is like a rare book. We're reading a page at a time."





Experts wrap up analysis of Kennewick Man

This story was published Friday, July 15th, 2005

By Anna King, Herald staff writer

SEATTLE -- The dozens of eyes studying Kennewick Man began to show the strain Thursday afternoon of the long hours and intensive analysis of the past 10 days.

The scientists had just hours left to complete their work. And these dozen experts in fields from forensic anthropology to geochemistry could be the last Kennewick Man sees.

They were guarded in their remarks about what they have found so far, but a few details slipped -- like the position of some of the 9,400-year-old skeleton's hands and feet and if his skull links him to other ancient populations of North and South America.

Hugh Berryman, one of the scientists, took a break at a shady table holding an almost empty Diet Coke outside the Burke Museum on the scenic University of Washington campus where the study is going on inside a classroom.

"I'd like to be able to put some things together, and then look at it again to make sure I've got it right," he said, with a soft Southern accent. "But there just isn't time."

Berryman, a forensic anthropologist at Middle Tennessee State University in Nashville, specializes in how bones break. He's been carefully examining each of Kennewick Man's bones and determining when, how and why each broke.

Berryman said he thinks Kennewick Man's right hand was facing palm down and his left foot was heel down and turned out and to the side while he was buried along the banks of the Columbia River in Kennewick for all those centuries. Yet none of the scientists were willing to speculate yet on whether the old man was buried or was preserved for so many years right where he fell.

But those answers are coming.

Sometimes four of the scientists have spent an entire day studying just one of the major limb bones, Berryman said.

David Hunt, a forensic anthropologist with the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., said it took him four days to piece together the expensive and high-tech 11-piece model of Kennewick Man's skull and compare it to the original. The pieces for the model were fabricated weeks ago and assembled last week.

After he put it together, Hunt said he thinks the skull's shape looks similar to other Paleo-American skulls he's handled.

"Some of the features I see here are very similar to the Paleo-Indian, Paleo-Native American cultures I've worked with," he said.

Hunt used jeweler's wax on the original skull to make sure the model fit as closely as possible to the real thing. He said he was a bit nervous while handling pieces of Kennewick Man's skull, and he expects criticism on his reconstruction, despite his painstaking work.

Doug Owsley, the team's lead scientist and a forensic anthropologist for the Smithsonian, was quick to point out that he doesn't think Kennewick Man is related to modern-day tribes.

"It's much more complicated," he said. "He doesn't fit into this simple Bering (Sea) land bridge model. He could be an immigrant himself."

The plastic replica skull was created using a high-powered CAT scan machine, and cost about $20,000. Nathan Myhrvold of Seattle, the former chief technologist at Microsoft, was identified Thursday as the plastic skull's major donor.

Owsley said the scientists have determined that Kennewick Man's skeleton was buried and then didn't shift much until he was eroded out of the riverbank along the Columbia. The skeleton was found by college students wading in the river during Water Follies in 1996.

Scientists also were looking for cut marks or signs that a burrowing animal had damaged the skeleton and left tiny scratches behind.

Scientists say they believe the sharp stone point lodged in Kennewick Man's hip is made of basalt. And they think they might be able to determine where the basalt came from.

In the next week, Owsley said a plastic model of the arrowhead in his hip will be made so scientists who specialize in stone tools can take a closer look at what's inside.

And in October they expect to have an interim report prepared.

But the scientists say they are worried about Kennewick Man's future.

Further studies of Kennewick Man could be stopped if a bill proposed by U.S. Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz., passes and a two-word amendment changes the wording of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. It would let federally recognized tribes demand the return of remains, even if they can't prove a link to a modern tribe. And that decision might be made in just a few weeks in Washington, D.C.

Northwest Native American tribes believe Kennewick Man is their ancestor and want to rebury the bones.

"That is so scary, because it would end it," Berryman said. "Any attempt to understand the past would be gone."

Today could be the last time the forensic scientist ever gets the chance to study the ancient bones.

"Mr. Kennewick is a fine gentleman," Berryman said. "I wouldn't mind seeing him again. He's like an old friend."

__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to Wingy For This Useful Post:
CakesThe Baker (10-06-2008)
  #39  
Old 07-19-2005, 07:58 AM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default Tribal leaders to visit England

Tribal leaders to visit England

The American delegation includes Virginia Indians who are a major part of the Jamestown 2007 events.





BY CHRIS FLORES
247-4738

July 15 2005

WILLIAMSBURG -- As members of the federal commission organizing the Jamestown 2007 commemoration board a plane to England today to meet with their British counterparts, Virginia Indian tribal leaders also will be making their first official visit since the 1600s.

Virginia's tribal leaders said Thursday that the trip - as well as receiving federal recognition by 2007 - will be an important part of a healing process that is 398 years in the making.

The presence of Virginia Indian tribes on the journey to England is also part of a spirit of inclusion of Indian perspectives that will make the 400th anniversary of the founding of America's first English-speaking settlement much different than the 350th or 300th anniversaries.

"We have this tremendous opportunity to start the healing process, and I want to affirm that that's what this is to us," said Ken Adams, chief of the Upper Mattaponi Tribe.

The terrorist attacks in London last week won't stop the trip, either. Frank B. Atkinson, chair of the federal commission, e-mailed condolences to Jamestown 2007 British Committee member William Blair, the brother of British Prime Minister Tony Blair.

Within a day, Blair sent back an e-mail assuring the American delegation that the Brits aren't too engaged with the aftermath of the attack to host the visitors.

"We won't allow terrorists to set our agenda," said Ben Dendy, co-vice chair of the federal commission.

The British committee is organizing events to promote awareness of Jamestown's anniversary in the U.K. The Virginia Indian Festival in Gravesend, Kent in 2006 will link Virginia's Indians to England at the place where Pocahontas is buried.

"This is the beginning of a continuing relationship with England - one that will bear fruits for my people and the commonwealth of Virginia," said Steve Adkins, chief of the Chickahominy Tribe.

Virginia has been strengthening ties with England in a number of ways leading up the Jamestown events. The historical preservation communities, local governments and trade offices on both sides of the water are collaborating because of the 2007 plans.

"The Virginia Tourism Corporation is working diligently to increase travel between the United Kingdom and commonwealth of Virginia during the commemoration," said Thomas K. Norment Jr., R-James City.

As Virginia will be at center stage in 2007, so will the state's Indians, said Adkins, who thought he was the "token" Indian when he was first appointed to the 16-member federal commission. But he's been pleased with how Indians' voices have been heard.

Virginia's tribes played a key role in changing the anniversary from a "celebration" to a "commemoration" when planning began. The arrival of the colonists ultimately led to fighting that killed 90 percent of the America's Indians' population, said Adams, so it's hard to celebrate that.

But the inclusion of the Indian perspectives this time around is a sign of how history is being viewed in a much more broad sense today, said Adkins.

"We are starting to look at contributions of my people and other minorities," he said.

With Virginia Indians slated to play important roles in 2007 events in Virginia, attention has turned to federal recognition. More than 560 Indian tribes are recognized by the federal government, but none are in Virginia.

Federal recognition opens the door to benefits such as health care, education and housing money. But it's also about respect for the role Indians played in the founding of this country - including helping the original Jamestown settlers survive, say tribal leaders.

It is vital to the Indians across the country that the federal government recognize Virginia's tribes before they are on full display to the world in 2007, said Adams.

"Every one of us can be lifted by that process," said Adams.

One of the main goals of the trip, said Dendy, is to make sure the British committee can secure a commitment of Queen Elizabeth II to attend the festivities on the anniversary weekend in 2007. It would be particularly fitting because the queen's first official visit to the United States was in 1957 to attend events in Jamestown.


Copyright © 2005, Daily Press
__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to Wingy For This Useful Post:
CakesThe Baker (10-06-2008)
  #40  
Old 07-19-2005, 08:00 AM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default Brutal march scarred Navajos, Apaches (long)

Saturday, July 16, 2005

Brutal march scarred Navajos, Apaches

Jim Boeck Special To El Defensor Chieftain

Editor's Note: Last month, a memorial was dedicated at Bosque Redondo near Fort Summer in honor of the American Indians driven from their homes and forced to walk across the state to be confined in that area. This is the story behind The Long Walk.

It is often said that history is written by the victors. This presents historians with the challenge sorting out historical truth from fiction. For the most part, reality lies somewhere between the interpretations offered by victors and the vanquished.

This was certainly the case with the tragic forced Long Walk of the Navajo, a march which took the vanquished through Los Pinos en route to their final destination in the Pecos River valley in the mid-1860s.

Soon after Gen. Edward R.S. Canby's Union forces drove the Confederates out of New Mexico, in 1862, Brig. Gen. James H. Carleton assumed command of the Department of New Mexico. Carleton had led the California Volunteers to secure the Southwest and the routes of communication and transportation therein for the Union.

Carleton's main objective had been to drive out the Confederates from New Mexico, but by the time the hardy Californians arrived on the banks of the Rio Grande, the beleaguered Confederates had already retreated into the vast desert of West Texas.

Carleton may not have had Confederates to engage, but the hostile Indian tribes of New Mexico were still present to engage Carleton's blue-clad troopers.

Gen. Carleton was known to be as hard as nails and to possess a notoriously short temper. He was a vigorous Indian campaigner, having fought many western Indian tribes in campaigns covering nearly 20 years.

Carleton knew and respected the Indians as worthy opponents, but not as fellow human beings. His favorite characterization of them was that of wild game.

"An Indian is a more watchful and a more wary animal than a deer," he once told a fellow soldier. "He must be hunted with skill."

Carleton's first objective was to defeat the fierce, hard-riding Mescalero Apache who, in 1862, were at their military peak. In August alone, the Apache had killed 46 settlers, had kidnapped scores of children and had run off thousands of head of livestock.

Carleton chose the famous frontiersman and mountain man, Col. Kit Carson, to punish and subdue the intrepid Mescalero for their depredations.

In the past, Carson and Carleton had enjoyed a close friendship. Carleton had valued Carson's knowledge of the Indians ever since they had served together in a campaign against the Jicarilla Apache in northern New Mexico, in 1854.

Carleton's policy concerning the Indians was to engage them in a merciless war, ceasing only after an unconditional surrender was achieved. It was Carleton's opinion that the Indians should be defeated, should be placed on reservations to learn White man ways, should adopt the Christian religion, and should become self-sustaining, peaceful farmers.

Carson, once married an Indian woman who met an early death, was more compassionate and understanding of the Indians and their culture. Carson knew that the Mescalero were not entirely to blame for the conflict that occurred.

The Apache had been pushed from their traditional hunting grounds by the Army and new non-Indian settlers in the region. Their raids were primarily caused by a desperate need for food. But Carson's arguments for compassion fell on deaf ears with the hard-bitten Indian hater, Carleton.

A good soldier, Carson obeyed his orders. The Mescaleros were no match for the well-armed Union troopers who cut them down easily with their rifles. The defeated Mescaleros were rounded up and sent to Bosque Redondo near Fort Sumner by the Pecos River.

Carleton considered Bosque Redondo to be an ideal location for a new reservation because of its isolation and open plains, which made it easier for troops to observe their captives and pursue them if needed. Carleton believed the area would also be suitable for the relocation of other hostile tribes, notably the Navajo.

Navajo renegades had constantly raided Hispanic and Anglo ranches, driving off countless sheep over several decades. In one instance, while Colonel Manuel Chaves of the New Mexico Volunteers was fighting at the Civil War Battle of Glorieta Pass in 1862, the Navajo raided his ranch in eastern Valencia County, looting it of 11,000 head of sheep, plus all of his cattle and horses.

Carleton also had ulterior motives for relocating the Navajo to Bosque Redondo. Gold and silver strikes had been made in western New Mexico and eastern Arizona. New strikes brought increasing numbers of miners and settlers to lands considered theirs by the Navajo. Carleton knew the Navajo would attack the white trespassers. He believed the best way to avoid clashes would be to remove the Navajo to Bosque Redondo.

Carleton was well aware that the enlistments of most of his California Volunteers would end in 1864. It was, therefore, imperative that Carleton's troops be used at present strength levels to lessen the potential Indian threat. Carleton felt that after the Navajo were evacuated to the Bosque Redondo interment camp they would be easier to manage even with lower troop strength.

The Navajo nation was not as tenacious as the Apache, who were primarily a warrior race living off their raids and wild game. Like the Apache, the Navajo had engaged in guerilla warfare and counter raids with the Hispanics of New Mexico for generations. Unlike the Apache, they were also a farming and pastoral people, possessing gardens, orchards, and thousands of sheep. Just before the Civil War, Canby had persuaded them to sign an armistice to end their raiding.

Hispanic slavers broke this peace by raiding Indian villages. The practice of enslaving Indians had a long history, dating back to New Mexico's colonial period. Slavery, likewise, was practiced by New Mexico tribes including the Navajo, Ute, Apache and Comanche.

Shortly after Gen. Carleton assumed command from Canby in 1862, 18 Navajo chiefs came calling on Carleton, expressing their desire to make a treaty.

Carleton looked at them with a cold glare, and asked, "Why do you want a treaty?"

With a look of disbelief etched on their faces, the chiefs responded, "That we may hereafter have peace."

Carleton curtly told them, "Go home; stay there." Then he added, "Commit no more robberies or murders, and you'll have peace.

"Treaties", he said, breaking down the dialogue to a nuts and bolts level, "confused matters, involving a double labor of making and breaking them."

Perplexed, the Navajo reflected for a moment. Carleton obviously was not going to be taken in by their rhetorical attempts to beguile him. As far as Carleton was concerned the Navajo had never kept their treaties, and he felt that he had no reason to believe that they would in the future.

Realizing the peace talks were going nowhere, the chiefs mentioned that they had never been refused a treaty before. They said that they would go back to their land to try to persuade their young men to control their passionate urge to raid for plunder.

A few weeks after these unproductive talks, the Navajo raids resumed.

After U.S. troops had dealt the Mescalero Apache severe setbacks, the Navajo knew that their turn was next. Carleton's wrath would not be satisfied until the Navajo were put into confinement in the bleak Bosque Redondo interment camp.

The chiefs came to Carleton again pleading their case that most of their people were not the perpetrators of the vile crimes being committed on the New Mexican settlements. Reflecting for a moment, Carleton shot back that neither he nor his men could distinguish friendly from unfriendly Navajo.

Carleton argued that the only solution to the problem would be for friendly Navajo to relocate to the Bosque Redondo reservation. But the Indian leaders refused to believe that this was their only option. One of their leaders declared that not one Navajo would move to that desolate reservation.

Carleton responded by announcing that July 20, 1863, would be the deadline for the Navajo to move peaceably. After that date, every Navajo would be viewed as the enemy.

The Navajo replied that they had heard, "Big talk before that had meant nothing, and had listened for years to the cry of the wolf that came not."

But Carleton was not bluffing. On July 20, just as Carleton had foretold, the war on the Navajo nation began. Kit Carson was assigned the distasteful job of leading 736 troopers, composed mostly of New Mexico Volunteers, California Volunteers and only a few regular army soldiers, because the majority of the Union army was still fighting a determined Confederate army back East.

Carson was joined by Lt. Col. J. Francisco Chaves and his 326 troops from Fort Wingate, as well as a band of fearsome Ute Indians itching to settle old scores against their traditional Navajo enemy.

During the Navajo campaign of 1863-1864 there were no large battles. Carson's troops hunted their game with Ute warrior scouts, tracking the Navajo like animals. Soon losing patience, Carson adopted a "scorched earth" policy to bring the evasive Navajo to their knees by seizing and destroying anything that could help the Navajo survive. Nothing, including hogans, horses, food staples, orchards, sheep and blankets, was left undisturbed.

The campaign wreaked havoc on the Navajo. Carson estimated that his troops destroyed 2,000,000 pounds of Indian grain. The Navajo could not replace their foodstuffs or rebuild their hogans for the winter. Despair fell on the once proud Navajo nation as bitter cold set in on the high plateau.

Many Navajo grew cold and hundreds began to starve. Finally, Carleton ordered Carson to administer the coup de grace by invading Canyon de Chelly, the Navajos' principal stronghold.

The Canyon de Chelly campaign broke the back of Navajo resistance. Learning that Carson would rather feed than kill them, the downtrodden Navajo began surrendering in ever larger numbers.

The cold, weary Navajo were rounded up like cattle, and the "Long Walk", so much a part of Navajo oral tradition, began. It started at Fort Wingate and progressed with all of the compassion of a cattle drive.

According to legend, Navajo children were kidnapped by New Mexicans as the Navajo made their way to army forts to surrender. New Mexico Governor Henry Connelly was so outraged by this citizen campaign of chattel slavery that he issued a proclamation warning that armed men who roamed roaming the Navajo countryside would be arrested by the army. He forbade the trafficking of additional Indian captives.

The forced march was utterly brutal. Troopers shot straggling Navajo. The stronger Navajo at the front of the column often heard gunshots coming from the rear. The Navajo often pleaded to help a weak or injured relative, but the troopers usually refused.

One Navajo later related the story of a young pregnant woman who was ready to give birth, and could no longer keep up. The woman's parents begged the troops to give her time to give birth. The troopers replied that they could not hold up the column, and told the parents to catch up with the others.

The parents dutifully obeyed as their daughter told them not to worry. Once the parents moved on, a trooper drew his rifle. The Indian girl's eyes pleaded for mercy for her and her unborn child, but no mercy was shown. The heartless soldier shot the pregnant woman in cold blood.

Los Pinos, located 18 miles south of Albuquerque near present day Peralta, became the forward staging area and supply depot for the Union army during the Navajo Long Walk. Los Pinos served as a place where the Navajo were fed and given blankets to protect them from the miserable winter weather.

Lt. George H. Pettis, of the California Volunteers, confessed that he dreaded the long trip from Los Pinos to the military reservation at Bosque Redondo, some 242 miles distant. He described the Navajo as being "nearly all naked" before the army issued them blankets of dubious quality.

Pettis left the depot with 44 soldiers and 243 Navajo. Twenty-five Hispanic teamsters drove 16 mule wagons carrying vitally needed supplies.

Pettis later described the ordeal of the forced march to the Bosque Redondo by saying that he and his Navajo charges were "on the road 15 ... long weary days, most of the time in the mountains, three ranges of which I crossed over ...

"While in the mountains we experienced very cold weather and some of the time having no water, but what we could obtain by melting snow, and part of the time we had no wood either to keep us warm, or melt our snow — everything must have an end; so we finally arrived ... safely.

"I had fed the last of the Indian provisions the day before, and my company were quite without provisions. Four of the Indians died, and were buried on the road, so I got here with 239" survivors.

The march from Fort Wingate to the Bosque Redondo reservation took about 19 days to complete. Once at their destination, the 8,000 captive Navajo were expected to raise their own food in garden plots alongside their bitter enemy, the Mescalero Apache.

Carleton had mistakenly believed that because both tribes were related as Athapascan-speaking people they would feel a kinship, and harmonize on their shared reservation. But the two groups had developed separate cultures and had grown far apart. They were, in fact, bitter enemies.

Neither tribe could get used to the government rations. The Navajo, used to a diet rich in corn and mutton, experienced severe stomach problems. They begged the Union army for corn to feed their hungry people.

Desperate for corn, some Navajo boys, wandered off to where the horses and mules were corralled, and searched through great piles of raked manure for undigested kernels of corn to eat. They roasted their hard-sought food in hot ashes.

The Navajo suffered greatly from malnutrition, oppressive heat, virulent disease, and brackish water that caused dysentery. The stagnant water also became a breeding ground for mosquitoes, so that many Navajo were also stricken with malaria. In November 1865, an outbreak of measles began, killing members of both tribes.

U.S. troops had intercourse with many of the Navajo women, infecting them with syphilis and gonorrhea-like symptoms. The women, in turn, infected members of their tribe. It was estimated that one-fourth of the Navajo perished due to Carleton's internment of the tribe at the Bosque Redondo concentration camp.

The Mescaleros decided they had had their fill of Carleton's concentration camp policies. That same month they bolted en masse to their former mountain strongholds.

Carleton's harsh rein over the Navajo at Bosque Redondo brought his actions and policies to the attention of a joint committee of Congress. The ensuing investigation caught the attention of the U.S. War Department. The Secretary of War informed Carleton on Oct. 6, 1866, that he was being demoted to lieutenant colonel. He was ordered to report to a new regiment in San Antonio, Texas.

This action essentially ended Carleton's erstwhile successful military career. He died of pneumonia Jan. 7, 1873, at San Antonio, Texas. Carleton's subordinate, Carson, had died earlier of an aneurysm May 24, 1868, at the age of 59.

In 1868, Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman, the decimator of the South on his infamous 1864 March to the Sea, visited the Bosque Redondo reservation on a fact-finding mission for Congress. Sherman, who had a "flinty heart" himself, was shocked and repulsed by the living conditions of the Navajo.

Afterward, Sherman wrote to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant saying, "The Navajo were sunk into a condition of absolute poverty and despair."

This from the man who had plundered and destroyed the South, leaving many white Southerners homeless and hungry. And yet, Sherman could not stomach the Navajos' living conditions. Just how much of a hell-hole could Bosque Redondo have been?

Later, after Sherman's report was submitted to Grant, a treaty was signed by the Navajo nation. In June 1868, under the terms of peace, the Navajo returned to their beloved homeland. Each family was given two sheep in order to re-start their flocks and renew their traditional lives. Thus ended another sad chapter in New Mexico's long history of man's inhumanity to his fellow man.

Boeck is a Valencia County historical researcher.
__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to Wingy For This Useful Post:
CakesThe Baker (10-06-2008)
  #41  
Old 07-19-2005, 08:01 AM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default Eagle parts returned to Alaska Native woman



The Associated Press

Published: July 16th, 2005
Last Modified: July 16th, 2005 at 05:00 PM


KETCHIKAN, Alaska (AP) - Wildlife officials this week returned dozens of eagle feathers, an eagle skull and a set of eagle wings that were confiscated last month from an Alaska Native woman.

Troopers took the items from the home of Mary Mann in June after the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in Alaska received reports that a non-native man, her husband, Dennis, possessed the eagle parts.

American Indians can possess eagle feathers solely for religious purposes, however, non-natives cannot, said Steve Oberholtzer, assistant special agent in charge for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Juneau office.

Mary Mann said she used the feathers for Native regalia, including a fan and a rattle.

But officials, who returned the parts on Monday, said Mann still needed a permit to possess the feathers, which she received from her brother.

Oberholtzer said Fish and Wildlife Service will not pursue legal action for possession without a permit because there was no evidence the Mann's were trading in the parts commercially.

It is illegal for both natives and non-natives to sell eagle parts, Oberholtzer said. Penalties for illegally possessing or selling eagle parts can range from a $500 fine to a maximum of two years imprisonment and a $250,000 fine per person, Oberholtzer said.

The Ketchikan Indian Community planned to discuss trying to change the permit law for Natives at its August meeting.

---

Information from: Ketchikan Daily News, http://www.ktnnews.com
__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
  #42  
Old 07-19-2005, 08:03 AM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default A Troubling Chapter in the Bald Eagle's Success Story



A Troubling Chapter in the Bald Eagle's Success Story

By Steven Bodzin, Times Staff Writer

SITKA, Alaska — A smile crinkled Steve Johnson's face as he opened the express-mail package on his desk. The box was big enough to hold a new computer, but it was lined with insulation — and what Johnson extracted, frozen solid in separate plastic bags, were the body, talons, wings and head of a bald eagle. A separate bag held several long white tail feathers.

"Have you ever held a dead eagle?" he asked an astonished co-worker.


Johnson is a Tlingit Indian of the Sitka tribe of Alaska, and his extraordinary package was part of a striking environmental success story — the rescue of the American bald eagle from the edge of extinction.

Thirty years ago, as a result of pesticides, water pollution, hunting and other factors, bald eagles had vanished from all but the most remote corners of the country that had made them a national symbol. Today, they can be found in every state except Hawaii, and are even making their home in a New York City park.

But the eagles' comeback, still fragile at best, is threatened by an unusual confluence of factors. And, paradoxical as it may seem, Johnson's package is linked to the policies and institutions that made the resurgence possible as well as to the new dangers that threaten it.

What enabled eagles to return to areas they had vanished from was a nationwide effort to control pesticides and water pollution, plus the strictest wildlife protection law on the federal books.

The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act says that anyone who so much as collects a fallen eagle feather off a forest floor could face as much as a year in jail and a $5,000 fine.

The sole significant exemption from the ban is for Native Americans, who have long venerated eagles in their religious observances and have used eagle feathers, heads and talons in ceremonies and tribal regalia.

That's where Johnson and his unusual package come in.

For more than three decades, the National Eagle Repository, an obscure federal agency near Denver, has quietly collected deceased eagles from zoos, highway departments and game wardens, and distributed them to people so they could carry on religious and cultural practices without having to hunt or trap live birds. The repository sends about 1,700 deceased eagles each year to Native Americans across the country.

However, the system of legal protections and government-controlled distribution of eagle parts to Native Americans is showing signs of breaking down.

And the demand for eagle feathers has begun to soar. Black-market prices for eagle feathers and parts are climbing too. And that, wildlife experts fear, could set off a wave of illegal poaching — with disastrous results.

One reason for the growing demand for feathers is that thousands of non-Indian practitioners of New Age religions have embraced Indian beliefs and ceremonies. Four of them are arguing in federal court in Utah that restrictions on possessing eagle artifacts violate their constitutional right to freedom of religion.

Demand is growing among Native Americans as well: Indian leaders, seeking a revival of the community bonds that can improve education and prevent alcoholism, are promoting traditional beliefs and ceremonies.

As powwows and other observances grow in number, so does the demand for eagle parts. Currently, it takes as long as five years to have a request filled by the National Eagle Repository.

Many powwows include competitions among Native American performers, with cash prizes awarded, in part, for the most complete regalia.

This year the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation is offering more than $200,000 in prizes at Schemitzun, from the Algonquin word meaning "feast of green corn and dance." More than 3,000 participants are expected at the festival, near the tribe's Foxwoods Resort and Casino in Connecticut, for the dance competition alone.

Then there are the private collectors of Indian artifacts, many of them in Europe, who pay tens of thousands of dollars for authentic regalia adorned with eagle feathers.

With demand outstripping legal supply, wildlife experts warn that any significant increase in the killing of eagles could undermine their continued recovery. The eagle population is especially vulnerable to disruption by hunters and trappers because the birds' reproductive cycle is long, slow and barely able to maintain itself under favorable circumstances.

"Eagles are vulnerable to shooting because they produce few young," said Jody Millar, a bald eagle recovery coordinator for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in Illinois. "The way they thrive in numbers is through longevity."

Eagles are usually between 4 and 8 years old when they pair up and begin laying eggs. They remain productive for about 10 years, usually having one successful chick per year. In harsh climates, where they live about 12 years, a typical couple will produce six fledglings. No more than half of the baby eagles survive long enough to reach adulthood.

"Any animal that has a low reproductive rate is going to be sensitive to new sources of mortality," said James Fraser, an eagle specialist at Virginia Tech who has been studying their reproductive patterns since 1974.

Golden eagles between 2 and 3 years old are especially tempting targets for hunters and trappers because their black and white feathers are most prized by collectors, ceremonial dancers and religious practitioners.

To honor Indian treaties, the Fish and Wildlife Service will issue a permit for eagle feathers to anyone with a government-issued Certificate of Indian Birth, but such permits are not frequently checked.

Also, many Native Americans receive feathers as gifts, but the National Eagle Repository does not require that they get a permit. Nothing distinguishes a gift feather from one acquired illegally.

Sam Jojola, a special agent with the Fish and Wildlife Service, said that checking permits would take too long for the fewer than 200 federal wildlife agents in the field.

"I'm more interested in the most egregious wildlife violations we can find," Jojola said.

Native Americans retained the right to hunt eagles well into the 20th century. After the government banned eagle hunts, it created the permit system and the repository to allow Indians to maintain their religious practices.

But the permit system and the repository are under attack in the Utah case, which will be argued before a U.S. District Court judge in Salt Lake City this summer.

The defendants, who are being prosecuted by the federal government for possession of eagle feathers, are Utah residents Samuel R. Wilgus Jr., Raymond Hardman, and Christopher and Faye Beath. Wilgus is a member of a Christian sect called the Native American Church; Hardman and the Beaths have spent much of their lives on the remote Uintah and Ouray Reservation, taking part in local Native American ceremonies. None is Native American.

In separate cases in the 1990s, Wilgus and Hardman were found guilty of illegally possessing eagle feathers. Each appealed to the 10th Circuit Court of Appeals, which in August 2002 ordered their cases reheard by the district court to determine whether the government was violating a federal religious freedom law by allowing only members of officially recognized Indian tribes to have feathers. The Beaths were charged in 2000 with illegally possessing eagle parts.

The defendants call the permit system discriminatory and ineffective, saying that the government's restrictions go beyond what is necessary to protect eagles and preserve Native American culture. They predict that the black market will grow under current policies.

One measure of the rising demand, they say, is the fact that the repository's waiting list, now as long as five years, was only a few months a decade ago.

Hardman was using a bundle of feathers to purify his truck after transporting a relative's body to a funeral. At the time, he had a wife and two children with Certificates of Indian Birth, and they regularly took part in religious ceremonies together. When he was given a feather bundle by a Hopi practitioner in Arizona, he promptly called the Fish and Wildlife Service to get a possession permit.

He was told he was ineligible because of his bloodline. Though his wife and children had Certificates of Indian Birth and he was an accepted practitioner of American Indian religion, he was not a member of a tribe.

"They told me not to even bother — that the best thing for me to do would be to turn over my feathers to the authorities," Hardman said. Instead, he hung the feathers from the rear-view mirror of his Ford pickup.

They stayed there until 1996, when his wife left him and turned him in to tribal police.

Hardman is angry at being prosecuted because, he said, some Native Americans trap, trade and sell eagle feathers. They don't get caught, he said, because police never check permits.

"If you are buying or selling eagle parts, the likelihood of being detected is slim to none," said Jojola, the Fish and Wildlife agent.

Hardman said police should check Native Americans' permits, but Native American practitioners consider that idea offensive.

"It's the same as having to have a permit to carry a cross," said Ron Rader, a powwow dancer in Sacramento whose regalia includes the wings and wing feathers of several golden eagles.

But Native Americans warn that allowing non-Indians to possess feathers because they practice Indian religions would create new demand for black-market feathers and spur an increase in poaching.

Edward Wemytewa, a tribal council member at Zuni Pueblo, a 500-year-old settlement in New Mexico, wrote in an affidavit for the prosecution, "Today, there are very few places left on Zuni lands where eagles still live in the wild. Additional demand for eagle feathers would have a detrimental effect on the Zuni way of life."

Though practitioners condemn killing or selling eagles, wildlife police, eagle biologists and Native American leaders agree that such a black market exists.

In 2000, one bald eagle and two golden eagles were killed and stolen from the Santa Barbara Zoo; authorities believe the birds were targeted for their feathers.

In an affidavit in the Utah case, Fish and Wildlife Special Agent Kevin Ellis wrote that the black-market price for a whole golden eagle carcass was about $1,200, a price that has tripled since the 1980s.

"It's a problem of supply and demand," said Cindy Schroeder, who retired last year from the Fish and Wildlife law enforcement division. "Every additional dancer or worshipper is more demand. The supply is flying around in the air."
__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
  #43  
Old 07-19-2005, 08:03 AM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default Red Lake tribal chairman is confident son will be cleared

Last update: July 18, 2005 at 11:14 PM

Red Lake tribal chairman is confident son will be cleared

Pam Louwagie and Terry Collins

Star Tribune

Published July 19, 2005



Red Lake tribal Chairman Floyd (Buck) Jourdain Jr. walked into a locked and guarded courtroom Monday morning for what likely was a hearing key to his son's fate: whether the teenager should be tried as an adult in the Red Lake school shootings case.

Louis Jourdain, who was 16 at the time, was charged in federal court after the March 21 school shootings in which Jeff Weise shot and killed 10 people including himself. Louis Jourdain is accused of conspiring to commit murder, a source with knowledge of the case has said.

The tribal chairman has said his son is innocent, and, after sitting in the courtroom for the day Monday, he told reporters it was becoming more apparent that things will work out for his son.

"I'm confident that the justice system is going to see that he's cleared," Floyd Jourdain said outside the courtroom.

Those formally connected with the case are not allowed to comment because it is being treated as a juvenile matter.

A counselor from Red Lake High School has been called to appear at the hearing Wednesday with the teenager's school records, Principal Chris Dunshee said last week.

That indicates that the hearing is likely to determine whether Jourdain should be tried as an adult, some legal observers said. Adult status would open proceedings to the public and could carry a significantly longer term of imprisonment if he is convicted.

"It has to be a hearing on the question of whether he should be transferred to adult status," said Scott Tilsen, Minnesota's acting federal public defender. "Those records are relevant to that question, and they're commonly introduced."

Judges deciding whether a juvenile should be tried as an adult consider factors including the juvenile's intellectual development and psychological maturity -- along with age and social background, the nature of the offense, any prior delinquency record, the response to any past treatment and the availability of programs to treat behavioral problems.

"While there are other possibilities, the presence of a counselor with school records could indicate that the issue before the court is whether this young man should be tried as an adult," former U.S. Attorney David Lillehaug agreed.

A scenario raised by another former U.S. attorney, B. Todd Jones, is that the case could be past the stage of deciding whether to prosecute Louis Jourdain as an adult or as a juvenile and that the records could help to determine consequences for his alleged actions.

Court doors locked

A hearing to decide whether to try Jourdain as an adult or a juvenile would carry high stakes. If tried and convicted as an adult, Jourdain could face life in prison, depending on under which federal statute he is charged. Conviction as a juvenile would likely mean release at age 21.

Shortly after his son's arrest in March, Floyd Jourdain professed his son's innocence in a written statement. "He is a good boy with a good heart who never harmed anyone in his entire life. I know my son, and he is incapable of committing such an act," the chairman wrote.

About 8:30 a.m. Monday, he walked with his wife, Gina, onto the seventh floor of the federal court building in St. Paul carrying a J.C. Penney bag with dress shoes and clothing, which they gave to attorney Jon Hopeman, a Minneapolis criminal defense lawyer.

They spent the day inside U.S. District Judge Donovan Frank's courtroom, which was locked and had paper covering the doors' windows.

Two sources with knowledge of the investigation said this spring that prosecutors were alleging that Louis Jourdain and Weise had been working on a plan for more than a year via e-mail and instant messages to kill Weise's grandfather, steal his weapons and kill people at Red Lake High School.

For reasons unknown, Weise, 16, went on the shooting spree by himself on March 21, starting with his grandfather and heading to school with his grandfather's weapons. He killed nine people before finally turning the gun on himself. Louis Jourdain had indicated before the attacks that he would be angry if the shooting happened without him, one source had said.

The writers are at

plouwagie@startribune.com and tcollins@startribune.com.
__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
  #44  
Old 07-19-2005, 08:04 AM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default Bighorn Canyon sites at mercy of unlawful artifact hunters



By LORNA THACKERAY
Of The Gazette Staff


Sometime in the past 200 to 400 years, an artist from an exclusive Crow religious society painted two sacred figures on the walls of a protected rock shelter on the edge of the Pryor Mountains.

He had meticulously drawn a man and a woman adorned with sacred hats worn by Crow participants in Tobacco Society rituals. The artist probably created his intense red paint by combining blood and urine with ocher, a reddish clay that crops up occasionally in the ancient mountain range. Pieces of ocher that the artist would have crushed to a fine powder for mixing his paint were discarded on the floor of the shelter.

"The Tobacco Society is very, very old,'' said Howard Boggess, a Crow and a historian, as he sat on a rock in front of the 2-foot-high paintings. "It's really a strong society. You have to work for years to get into it.''

Only those who are ritually pure, who drink no alcohol and don't partake of hallucinatory drugs, can participate, he said. It's a male society, according to Boggess, but women play an important role in ceremonies

Boggess and Mike Penfold, president of the Western Heritage Alliance, have spent years wandering southeastern Montana and northern Wyoming, finding, documenting and pushing to preserve archaeological sites.

The two Billings men visited the Tobacco Society shelter last summer, finding it in near pristine condition. Bureau of Land Management archaeologist Glade Hadden of Billings hadn't seen the figures, so they arranged an expedition for the next week. The shelter appeared untouched, just as Boggess and Penfold had left it. After leaving an offering of tobacco and plastic beads, the group made the arduous climb down the rocky slope.

A week later, Penfold and Boggess returned with another small group. This time, it was clear that someone had been treasure hunting at the sacred site. The figures had not been damaged, but looters had dug deep into the shelter's powdery soil, looking for artifacts.

They made off with the plastic beads deposited a week earlier, but that's probably all, Hadden said. It's a ceremonial site, not an occupation site, he said, and little would have been left behind by the Crow.

"There's nothing even to loot, and they took it anyway,'' Hadden said in disgust.

It's another blow to scientists trying to understand a landscape that has supported human life for at least 10,000 years. Sites all over public lands in Montana and Wyoming are being systematically pillaged of information vital to piecing together the ancient past, he said.

There are probably some professionals out there digging for profit, hoping to find something they can peddle online or to shady private collectors, Hadden said. But he said he believes most looters are amateurs hoping to expand their personal collections.

"They really love the hell out of it,'' he said. "But they are destroying what they love. They are destroying it so fast, we can't keep up with it.''

It's an obsession with some people, agrees Chris Finley, archaeologist for the Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. And artifact looting seems to be an obsession that some are unable to control.

"It's become a very serious problem,'' Finley said. "We just see more and more of it all the time. We're not sure what it is they're finding, but whatever it is, it keeps them coming back.''

This spring, he stood on a promontory in the national recreation area and spotted a cairn, a pile of carefully placed stones, that had been looted only two to three months earlier. Rocks from the dismantled cairn formed a circle around its center. A rodent skull and a few small animal bones lay among the ruins, but that was all.

"If there was anything in there, I'll never know now,'' he said, crouching to re-examine the ruined site.

Artifact hunting or vandalizing archaeological sites on public lands is almost always illegal. Professionals with proper credentials and a carefully detailed project in mind may be able to get a permit for BLM lands, but amateurs without credentials need not apply.

Basically, it is illegal to excavate, deface or remove objects from public lands or Indian reservations - including broad stretches of Montana managed by the BLM, the Forest Service and the National Park Service.

Writing "I love Mary'' or "Joe was here'' on an archaeological site can prompt a federal felony charge. Stealing artifacts from a site can result in a separate felony charge for each artifact taken. Looters can also be fined and required to pay the cost of restoring damaged artwork or a salvage archaeological survey of the area they have wrecked. Hadden said costs for salvage archaeology can quickly reach $100,000 or more. Archaeology done right isn't cheap.

The problem is catching the violators, Finley said. Looters have boldly operated on the edge of the Bighorn Canyon tour road, and no one has ever been caught red-handed.

Sound carries for miles in the national recreation area, and maybe the thieves just jump into the brush when they hear a car coming, he said. Maybe those who see them don't realize that people digging in the ground so openly might be doing something wrong.

There are more eyes out in the Pryor Mountains and on the Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area these days. Law enforcement officers are always on the lookout, and all federal employees who work on public lands have been on the alert for looters, too. So are volunteers like Boggess and Penfold. Hadden has also put together a group of volunteer stewards who check sites regularly. Members of the public who see something suspicious on public lands are asked to report it to law enforcement.

Beyond that, "all we really can do is educate them - try to develop a conscience in them,'' Finley said.


Copyright © The Billings Gazette, a division of Lee Enterprises.

__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
  #45  
Old 07-19-2005, 08:07 AM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default Native Lore Adds Clues to Ancient U.S. Catastrophes

Native Lore Adds Clues to Ancient U.S. Catastrophes

By Michael Schirber
LiveScience Staff Writer
posted: 18 July 2005
10:20 am ET


The Pacific Northwest is an historically active area for earthquakes and tsunamis. But some geological records can be difficult to sift through.

Now further clues of the region's catastrophic events have emerged from native lore.

The Cascadia subduction zone -- a fault line stretching along the coast from Vancouver to northern California -- likely erupted in seven or more major earthquakes in the last 3,500 years, geologists have learned in recent years.

Some of these events apparently were recorded in the Native American lore from the region. Through the use of mythological figures that represent wind, thunder, and water, a number of native stories describe major earth trembling and flooding along the coastline.

"There's a frightening amount of it," says Ruth Ludwin from the University of Washington. "It appears that these stories have to do with earthquake-, tsunami- and landslide-like events.”

One recurring theme in this oral tradition is the epic battle between Thunderbird and Whale. Ludwin and her colleagues find a metaphor for ground shaking and ocean surges in stories of Thunderbird being dragged down to the ocean floor, with its talons dug into Whale's back.

Other stories depict a shape-shifting spirit -- called a'yahos by the Salish people -- that often appears as a giant serpent with two heads or blazing eyes and horns. A'yahos is associated with shaking and rushes of muddy water.

“As you go around the region, there are very many of these stories and they are central to the native cultures, which suggests that these past earthquakes had profound effects on the local inhabitants,” Ludwin said.

Image Gallery







In two papers for the journal Seismological Research Letters, Ludwin and her collaborators have collected such stories in order to relate them to specific occurrences in the geologic past.

For instance, between 1860 and 1964, there were nine separate tales that appear to all describe a large tsunami from January 1700. Three of these stories -- passed down to grandchildren or great-grandchildren -- were eyewitness accounts of the flooding.

"There were a lot of native people living here,” Ludwin said. “Hearing the local story based on eyewitness accounts helps us to realize that the event occurred right here and that people saw it and remembered it for many generations."

Across the Pacific, this same tsunami resulted in flooding in Japan. Recent evidence points to a magnitude 9 earthquake on the Cascadia subduction zone as the cause of these giant waves.

Other native tales may be related to a major earthquake on the Seattle fault that erupted around 900 A.D. and presumably unleashed a tsunami in Puget Sound. The researchers found five stories about a'yahos that are associated with spots along this fault line, and another 13 stories that originate from Puget Sound and the surrounding region.

Did You Know ?







One story mentions a spirit boulder, which the researchers matched to an actual boulder located just south of the Fauntleroy ferry terminal in West Seattle. Subsequent analysis determined that this boulder was dislodged by a prehistoric landslide that may have been a mile in length.

Interpreting all the stories has not been easy, since any given earthquake has different effects in different places. But Ludwin said that knowing some of the symbolism has helped bridge the human history with the geologic history.

"Over time, so much has been lost but the stories still have a tremendous richness of detail. Things happened that left a very deep cultural impression," Ludwin said.

__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
  #46  
Old 07-19-2005, 08:10 AM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default Sacred Red Stone

07/17/2005

Sacred Red Stone


Native Americans have been harvesting pipestone from quarries near present day Pipestone, Minnesota for over 11 hundred years. It is one of the only places on earth where this soft red rock can be found.
You won't find powerful machines extracting the stone from these quarries, though. It's strictly a hands-on operation.

Pipestone, itself, is actually a soft claystone that is sandwiched between layers of some of natures hardest material, quartzite. It is a perfect material for carving and is sacred to Native Americans who have been making ceremonial pipes out of it for centuries.
Only registered members of Indian tribes are allowed to work the quarries..located in what is now the Pipestone National Monument.

“But you do have to work it to prove to the park service that you want to work this stone,” says stone carver, Travis Erickson.

In order to get to the vein of pipestone, often several feet of quartzite has to be removed. A brutal job because it has to be done without the aid of power tools, just hammers chisels and brute strength. Erickson has been working his quarry alone for a quarter century.

“I started back in the tree line That's where it began and this is in 25 years.”

Erickson not only quarries the stone himself, he's a fourth generation pipe carver and can be found at the monument's interpretive center five days a week where tourists can watch him work and ask questions..like if he's really Indian. He's Dakota nation Sioux on his mother's side. He's dad was Norwegian.

“The best thing I tell people is that I ask Thor to help me with the quarrying and ask my Indian ancestors to help me with the carving.”

Travis not only carves the pipestone bowls, he also makes the stem for the pipe.

During the height of the tourist season, Erickson and his fellow carvers at the Pipestone National Monument really don't get a lot of work done.

“No, that's why I have a shop at home. I take everything there. That's fine because the purpose here is to help educate the public and answer their questions,” Erickson says.

The pipes themselves are beautiful to be sure but Travis Erickson is an artist who needs to create other things. His carvings of buffalo, eagles, wolves, bears or even butterflies are challenge and popular commercially.

“But there are times when I need to get away from everybody and just carve what comes into my mind or into my spirit. I had a spiritual guy once tell me that I was hooked up to the spiritual internet. I need to carve those specific designs on pipes and that's just usually me goofing off,” he says.

There are some pipe makers who will use power tools and drills to speed things along.

“And, there's nothing wrong with that,” Erickson says, “but to keep it hand carved you keep the tradition alive, you keep the culture alive and plus you're also seeking what is within you too.”

When he started 26 years ago, Erickson says there were lots of carvers.

“Today we have less than a dozen left so it's a dying art.”

Out at his quarry, Travis ponders the big job of removing several feet of quartzite by hand before he can reach the precious pipestone now submerged in a few inches of water from recent rains. He'd like to get as much as he can before winter.

“There are really no limits as far as the government is concerned,” he says. “But the quartzite is going to limit you. So that, in our belief, is how the spirit will say, you've had enough.”
.
Achieving the traditional smooth red finish on the pipestone requires several sandings a coat of bees wax and hand polishing.Ceremonial pipestone pipes are sold at the national monument's interpretive center.

For more information, check out the
Pipestone National Monument site.
__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
  #47  
Old 07-19-2005, 08:12 AM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default Interior asks Congress for power to take Indian lands...thievery continues even nows



Interior asks Congress for power to take Indian lands
Monday, July 18, 2005

The Bush administration is once again asking Congress for authority to take "unclaimed" Indian lands and to eliminate its trust responsibility to tens of thousands of individual Indians.


In a letter to the Senate Indian Affairs Committee, the Interior Department urged Sen. John McCain (R-Arizona) to add provisions to a bill that is already on the Senate floor. Although the proposed changes were described as "technical," they would give the federal government powers that haven't been the subject of a hearing or prior public debate.

Matt Eames, Interior's director of Congressional affairs, said the department needs the ability to take lands that are owned by individual Indians who can't currently be located. Nearly 49,000 Indian beneficiaries, who are owed an estimated $73.9 million, would be affected.

"Under state law, a state may sell or auction off certain personal property that has not been claimed by an owner within a certain amount of time, usually within 5 years," the May 10 letter stated. "This is not the case with inactive Individual Indian Money accounts or real property interests."

Eames also proposed language to address two court cases -- including one that went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court -- that favored individual Indians and their constitutionally protected property rights. He said the department needs authority to take highly fractionated lands from beneficiaries, albeit with compensation.

"The provision should provide that the escheat of those interests to the tribes involved a taking by the United States and should provide compensation to the heirs of those escheated interests," Eames told McCain.

The proposals came in the administration's official response to S.536, the Native American Omnibus Act of 2005. The bill was approved by McCain's committee on May 12 and could be scheduled for a Senate vote any time.

If added to the bill, the provisions would eliminate the federal government's responsibilities to tens of thousands of Indian beneficiaries throughout the country who either can't be located or who share ownership in highly fractionated pieces of land. Interior officials have said keeping track of these account holders is costing the department millions of dollars.

Over the years, several proposals have been floated in an attempt to close the accounts, an effort that former assistant secretary Neal McCaleb once described as "termination." Not surprisingly, Indian Country hasn't reacted positively.

In late 2002, the department proposed an unclaimed property act that was soundly rejected by tribal leaders who were participating in the task force on trust reform. Interior officials blamed the legislation's quick demise on the task force, saying tribal leaders prematurely shared the information with the plaintiffs in the Cobell v. Norton lawsuit and with the media.

But the department, tribes, Indian landowners and other stakeholders were able to come together and pass the American Indian Probate Reform Act. The bill, signed into law by President Bush in October 2004, encourages estate planning by individual Indians, establishes a uniform probate code and helps tribes consolidate fractionated lands.

Past efforts, however, have not met muster in the courts. In the Babbitt v. Youpee case, the Supreme Court ruled that Congress violated the property rights of about 18,000 individual Indians in the Great Plains and the Midwest by taking their lands without just compensation. The decision was issued in 1997 and the department is still trying to sort out the mess.

More recently, a federal judge has found another piece of legislation to be unconstitutional in the DuMarce v. Norton case. It affects members of the Sisseton-Wahpeton Tribe whose fractionated lands were taken without just compensation.

The relevant parts of the Interior Department's letter are as follows:

The Department also suggests additional amendments be added to S. 536. ... We also recommend two new titles be added to the bill that would provide a technical correction to address the decisions in Youpee v. Babbitt and DuMarce v. Norton and give the Secretary the authority to address unclaimed property.

Youpee and Sisseton-Wahpeton
A new title should be added to S. 536 that would provide a technical correction to address the decisions in Youpee v. Babbitt and DuMarce v. Norton. The United States Supreme Court in Youpee held the escheat provision of the Indian Land Consolidation Act as unconstitutional. In DuMarce, the District Court for the District of South Dakota found unconstitutional a statute under which any interest of less than two and a half acres would automatically escheat to the Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux Tribe. As a result of these two decisions, the Department is faced with having to revest interests that escheated under both statutes back to the rightful heir. We request that a new title be added declaring that any interest that escheated pursuant to these Acts be vested in the tribe to which they escheated unless they have been revested in the name of the heirs of the allottee by the Secretary since the escheatment. The provision should provide that the escheat of those interests to the tribes involved a taking by the United States and should provide compensation to the heirs of those escheated interests.


Unclaimed Property
Under state law, a state may sell or auction off certain personal property that has not been claimed by an owner within a certain amount of time, usually within 5 years. This is not the case with inactive Individual Indian Money accounts or real property interests. Often times the whereabouts of account owners are unknown to the Department because account holders do not respond to our requests for address information and our repeated attempts to locate them have been unsuccessful. This may be because the small amount in their account does not make such effort worthwhile. However, the Department must account for every interest regardless of size and we do not have the authority to stop administering accounts where whereabouts of the owner are unknown. We must have the authority to close these small accounts and restore economic value to the assets if the owner does not claim their interest within a certain amount of time. If the owner does not come forward, the revenue generated from the interest should be held in a general holding account against which claims could be made in the future if the owner’s whereabouts become known or used to further the fractionation program.


URL: http://www.indianz.com/News/2005/009350.asp
__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
  #48  
Old 07-19-2005, 08:17 AM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default Former Kickapoo exec draws 15 years

Former Kickapoo exec draws 15 years

Web Posted: 07/19/2005 12:00 AM CDT

John MacCormack
Express-News Staff Writer

The former director of the Kickapoo Indian health care program was sentenced Monday to 15 years in federal prison for scheming to steal hundreds of thousands of dollars from the tribe.

Maricela Mendoza, 50, was convicted last year of money laundering and theft after a six-day trial in federal court. Evidence showed that she forged and cashed numerous tribal checks.

Testifying in her own defense, Mendoza admitted cashing the checks, but claimed the money was used for legitimate tribal purposes.

However, evidence showed that Mendoza converted most of the checks to cash at a Mr. Payroll in Eagle Pass, where her niece worked. A parade of trial witnesses testified that they never received the cash Mendoza claims to have given them.

The health program received about $1 million annually in federal funds.

Mendoza was the first of eight defendants to go to trial on charges of financial crimes related to the Kickapoo. The 500-member tribe operates the state's only casino, on a reservation outside Eagle Pass.

Among those indicted early this year were Isidro Garza Jr., the former tribal manager; his son Timoteo Garza, a former state representative from Eagle Pass; and Raul Garza, a Kickapoo who was the tribe's longtime chairman. Raul Garza is not related to the other two.

Also charged were Isidro Garza's wife, Marta, and his son Isidro Xavier Garza, who both worked for the tribe, as well as former tribal lawyer Joe Ruiz of Eagle Pass and former casino manager Lee Martin.

The seven face charges ranging from civil rights violations relating to a tribal election to using tribal funds for personal and political expenses to evading income tax.

All are free on bond. They are expected to go to trial next spring in federal court in Del Rio.


Wingy's notes...this article is of personal interest to me...friends of mine in Texas were involved in the take over of the casino and then Juan was elected/appointed into the tribal council!!! Way to Go, Juan and JR!!!!! Their hard work, with other's from Texas AIM brought traditional gopvernment back to the Kickapoo of Texas.
__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
  #49  
Old 07-19-2005, 04:54 PM
Wingy's Avatar
Wingy Wingy is offline
Registered User
 

Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Mass, USA
Posts: 2,467
Thanks: 0
Thanked 99 Times in 53 Posts
Default Theda New Breast selected to serve on Governor's Public Defender Commission.

Theda New Breast selected to serve on Governor's Public Defender Commission.

By John McGill, Glacier Reporter Editor

"This is groundbreaking, and the ACLU is jumping for joy because Montana is one of the first states to pass legislation to do something about the Public Defenders Act," said Theda New Breast of Babb. The Blackfeet member's appointment to the commission is another of several recent appointments of Blackfeet members to the Governor's advisory staff, including Shannon Augare, Elouise Cobell and Gayle Skunkcap. New Breast joins Augare in a law-related body, the latter having been appointed to the Montana Board of Crime Control earlier this year.

"Justice is not just for those who can afford it," said New Breast Tuesday, July 5. "I stood up because 20 years ago and through 1994 I was an expert witness on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and dealing with people on death row...because they are families in desperation without a proper defense. This legislation brings public defenders into the process, and good ones, and now Montana has to fund it." The new laws mean a person accused of a crime must be supplied with a defense attorney immediately, New Breast explained. "On the reservation, people are often railroaded because they're either addicted to something or they're mentally ill, and they wind up in prison."

"This commission is committed to making sure justice prevails for the citizens of this state," said Governor Brian Schweitzer. "To be a fair and just society we must help the least and the last - those that are often discriminated against, whether for economic, racial or any other reason. We all deserve equal treatment under the law."

New Breast is currently the director of New Breast and Old Crow Inc., a family wellness consulting group. Her consulting work includes projects for the National Indian Child Welfare Association, the Siksika Nation and National Indian Women's Health Resource Center. She has a Bachelor's degree and her Masters of Public Health from the University of California. New Breast fills the position as a member of an organization advocating on behalf of racial minorities.

__________________
Ba maa pi

(til the next time)

Cyndi
Reply With Quote
  #50  
Old 07-21-2005, 06:37 AM
MiaBellaAngela's Avatar
MiaBellaAngela MiaBellaAngela is offline
Glad to be alive.
 

Join Date: Sep 2004
Location: ...
Posts: 6,713
Thanks: 4
Thanked 36 Times in 33 Posts
Default Native related

East To Use Shamanism by jan morgan wood
This gives good basic introduction on smudging, finding your power animal and more for beginners. Has good pictorals and step by step instructions. Good for beginners.

Shaman in a 9to 5 World by Patricia Telesco

Not 100%. Uses Native principles and has Native quotes to support teachings.
__________________

Last edited by MiaBellaAngela; 07-21-2005 at 07:08 AM..
Reply With Quote
Reply

Bookmarks

Thread Tools
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is Off
HTML code is Off
Forum Jump


All times are GMT -6. The time now is 02:57 PM.
Copyright © 2001- 2017 Prison Talk Online
Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.7.4
Copyright ©2000 - 2018, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.
Website Design & Custom vBulletin Skins by: Relivo Media
Message Board Statistics