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Old 06-20-2007, 09:32 PM
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Default Intimate Partner Violence

This is from the CDC (Centers for Disease Control).
There's lots more info - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/ipvfacts.htm
Intimate Partner Violence: Overview
Intimate Partner Violence

Statistics about intimate partner violence (IPV) vary because of differences in how different data sources define IPV and collect data. For example, some definitions include stalking and psychological abuse, and others consider only physical and sexual violence. Data on IPV usually come from police, clinical settings, nongovernmental organizations, and survey research.


Most IPV incidents are not reported to the police. About 20% of IPV rapes or sexual assaults, 25% of physical assaults, and 50% of stalkings directed toward women are reported. Even fewer IPV incidents against men are reported. Thus, it is believed that available data greatly underestimate the true magnitude of the problem. While not an exhaustive list, here are some statistics on the occurrence of IPV. In many cases, the severity of the IPV behaviors is unknown.
Nearly 5.3 million incidents of IPV occur each year among U.S. women ages 18 and older, and 3.2 million occur among men. Most assaults are relatively minor and consist of pushing, grabbing, shoving, slapping, and hitting.
In the United States every year, about 1.5 million women and more than 800,000 men are raped or physically assaulted by an intimate partner. This translates into about 47 IPV assaults per 1,000 women and 32 assaults per 1,000 men.
IPV results in nearly 2 million injuries and 1,300 deaths nationwide every year.
Estimates indicate more than 1 million women and 371,000 men are stalked by intimate partners each year.
IPV accounted for 20% of nonfatal violence against women in 2001 and 3% against men.
From 1976 to 2002, about 11% of homicide victims were killed by an intimate partner.
In 2002, 76% of IPV homicide victims were female; 24% were male.
The number of intimate partner homicides decreased 14% overall for men and women in the span of about 20 years, with a 67% decrease for men (from 1,357 to 388) vs. 25% for women (from 1,600 to 1,202.

One study found that 44% of women murdered by their intimate partner had visited an emergency department within 2 years of the homicide. Of these women, 93% had at least one injury visit.
Previous literature suggests that women who have separated from their abusive partners often remain at risk of violence.
Firearms were the major weapon type used in intimate partner homicides from 1981 to 1998.
A national study found that 29% of women and 22% of men had experienced physical, sexual, or psychological IPV during their lifetime.
Between 4% and 8% of pregnant women are abused at least once during the pregnancy.

Consequences

In general, victims of repeated violence over time experience more serious consequences than victims of one-time incidents. The following list describes just some of the consequences of IPV.

Physical

At least 42% of women and 20% of men who were physically assaulted since age 18 sustained injuries during their most recent victimization. Most injuries were minor such as scratches, bruises, and welts.

More severe physical consequences of IPV may occur depending on severity and frequency of abuse. These include:

Bruises
Knife wounds
Pelvic pain
Headaches
Back pain
Broken bones
Gynecological disorders
Pregnancy difficulties like low birth weight babies and perinatal deaths
Sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS
Central nervous system disorders
Gastrointestinal disorders
Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder
Emotional detachment
Sleep disturbances
Flashbacks
Replaying assault in mind
Heart or circulatory conditions
Children may become injured during IPV incidents between their parents. A large overlap exists between IPV and child maltreatment. One study found that children of abused mothers were 57 times more likely to have been harmed because of IPV between their parents, compared with children of non-abused mothers.

Psychological

Physical violence is typically accompanied by emotional or psychological abuse (Tjaden and Thoennes 2000a). IPV—whether sexual, physical, or psychological—can lead to various psychological consequences for victims :
Depression
Antisocial behavior
Suicidal behavior in females
Anxiety
Low self-esteem
Inability to trust men
Fear of intimacy

Social

Victims of IPV sometimes face the following social consequences:
Restricted access to services
Strained relationships with health providers and employers
Isolation from social networks
Health Behaviors

Women with a history of IPV are more likely to display behaviors that present further health risks (e.g., substance abuse, alcoholism, suicide attempts).

IPV is associated with a variety of negative health behaviors. Studies show that the more severe the violence, the stronger its relationship to negative health behaviors by victims.
Engaging in high-risk sexual behavior
Unprotected sex
Decreased condom use
Early sexual initiation
Choosing unhealthy sexual partners
Having multiple sex partners
Trading sex for food, money, or other items
Using or abusing harmful substances
Smoking cigarettes
Drinking alcohol
Driving after drinking alcohol
Taking drugs
Unhealthy diet-related behaviors
Fasting
Vomiting
Abusing diet pills
Overeating
Overuse of health services
Economic
Costs of IPV against women in 1995 exceed an estimated $5.8 billion. These costs include nearly $4.1 billion in the direct costs of medical and mental health care and nearly $1.8 billion in the indirect costs of lost productivity.
When updated to 2003 dollars, IPV costs exceed $8.3 billion, which includes $460 million for rape, $6.2 billion for physical assault, $461 million for stalking, and $1.2 billion in the value of lost lives.
Victims of severe IPV lose nearly 8 million days of paid work—the equivalent of more than 32,000 full-time jobs—and almost 5.6 million days of household productivity each year.
Women who experience severe aggression by men (e.g., not being allowed to go to work or school, or having their lives or their children’s lives threatened) are more likely to have been unemployed in the past, have health problems, and be receiving public assistance.


Groups at Risk

Certain groups are at greater risk for IPV victimization or perpetration.

Victimization

The National Crime Victimization Survey found that 85% of IPV victims were women.
Prevalence of IPV varies among race. Among the ethnic groups most at risk are American Indian/Alaskan Native women and men, African-American women, and Hispanic women.
Young women and those below the poverty line are disproportionately victims of IPV.

Perpetration
Studies show that for low levels of physical violence, men and women self-report perpetrating physical IPV at about the same rate. However, a common criticism of these studies is that they are generally lacking information on the context of the violence (e.g., whether self-defense is the reason for the violence).

Risk Factors for Victimization and Perpetration

Risk factors are associated with a greater likelihood of IPV victimization or perpetration. Risk factors are not necessarily direct causes of IPV—these may be contributing factors to IPV. Not everyone who is identified as "at risk" becomes involved in violence.

Some risk factors for IPV victimization and perpetration are the same. In addition, some risk factors for victimization and perpetration are associated with one another; for example, childhood physical or sexual victimization is a risk factor for future IPV perpetration and victimization.

The public health approach aims to moderate and mediate those contributing factors that are preventable, and to identify protective factors which can reduce the risk of victimization and perpetration.
A combination of individual, relational, community, and societal factors contribute to the risk of being a victim or perpetrator of IPV. Understanding these multilevel factors can help identify various points of prevention intervention.

Risk Factors for Victimization

Individual Factors

Prior history of IPV
Being female
Young age
Heavy alcohol and drug use
High-risk sexual behavior
Witnessing or experiencing violence as a child
Being less educated
Unemployment
For men, having a different ethnicity from their partner’s
For women, having a greater education level than their partner’s
For women, being American Indian/Alaska Native or African American
For women, having a verbally abusive, jealous, or possessive partner
Relationship Factors
Couples with income, educational, or job status disparities
Dominance and control of the relationship by the male
Community Factors
Poverty and associated factors (e.g., overcrowding)
Low social capital—lack of institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a community’s social interactions
Weak community sanctions against IPV (e.g., police unwilling to intervene)
Societal Factors
Traditional gender norms (e.g., women should stay at home and not enter workforce, should be submissive)


Risk Factors for Perpetration

Individual Factors
Low self-esteem
Low income
Low academic achievement
Involvement in aggressive or delinquent behavior as a youth
Heavy alcohol and drug use
Depression
Anger and hostility
Personality disorders
Prior history of being physically abusive
Having few friends and being isolated from other people
Unemployment
Economic stress
Emotional dependence and insecurity
Belief in strict gender roles (e.g., male dominance and aggression in relationships)
Desire for power and control in relationships
Being a victim of physical or psychological abuse (consistently one of the strongest predictors of perpetration)
Relationship Factors
Marital conflict—fights, tension, and other struggles
Marital instability—divorces and separations
Dominance and control of the relationship by the male
Economic stress
Unhealthy family relationships and interactions
Community Factors
Poverty and associated factors (e.g., overcrowding)
Low social capital—lack of institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a community’s social interactions
Weak community sanctions against IPV (e.g., unwillingness of neighbors to intervene in situations where they witness violence)
Societal Factors
Traditional gender norms (e.g., women should stay at home and not enter workforce, should be submissive)


Protective Factors

Little is known about what factors can lessen the likelihood of IPV victimization or perpetration. Please see "Risk Factors" section to know what factors can increase the likelihood of victimization or perpetration
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